Posted by: MandyS | September 7, 2011

Activity 3.1 – Models of disability

I thought I would give evernote a go in relation to making notes for this activity. I have included references as I go along so that if I want to use any of the ideas later I don’t have to spend time trying to remember where I read it; this is something I learnt the hard way last year in taking ‘paper’ notes. This is the result:

disabled people still often feel that the dominant culture sees them as different from everyone else because of persisting stereotypes of disability.

The British Film Institute’s guide Disabling imagery? A teaching guide to disability and moving image media http://www.bfi.org.uk/education/teaching/disability/thinking/

Different models of disability give rise to different levels of service provision

Seale, J. (2006) E-Learning and Disability in Higher Education: Accessibility Research and Practice, Abingdon, Routledge; also available online at http://learn.open.ac.uk/mod/resourcepage/view.php?id=569013&direct=1

Medical Model

promotes the view of a disabled person as dependent and needing to be cured or cared for, and it justifies the way in which disabled people have been systematically excluded from society.

sometimes known as the ‘individual model’ because it promotes the notion that it is the individual disabled person who must adapt to the way in which society is constructed and organised.

Making Your Teaching Inclusive (2006) Models of Disability [online], http://www.open.ac.uk/inclusiveteaching/pages/understanding-and-awareness/medical-model.php

A notion of ‘normality’ was invested with great pseudo-scientific significance. It was based on assessments of impairments from a deficit point of view against normality: what one cannot do, instead of what one can do.

it is to argue that disabled people should not be reduced to just their impairments.

They need to be adapted to fit into the world as it is.

The emphasis is on dependence

Usually, the impairment is focused on, rather than the needs of the person.

the built environment imposes further limitations on disabled people. Medical model thinking would say these problems are due to the disabled person’s lack of rehabilitation.

The British Film Institute’s guide Disabling imagery? A teaching guide to disability and moving image media http://www.bfi.org.uk/education/teaching/disability/thinking/medical.html

Social Model

a disability is a mismatch between a particular person and a particular environment

service approach is towards barrier removal based on a shared responsibility

Seale, J. (2006) E-Learning and Disability in Higher Education: Accessibility Research and Practice, Abingdon, Routledge; also available online at http://learn.open.ac.uk/mod/resourcepage/view.php?id=569013&direct=1

disability is caused by the society in which we live and is not the ‘fault’ of an individual disabled person, or an inevitable consequence of their limitations.

The barriers that prevent any individual playing a part in society are the problem, not the individual.

aim of removing barriers so that disabled people have the same opportunity as everyone else

Making Your Teaching Inclusive (2006) Models of Disability [online], http://www.open.ac.uk/inclusiveteaching/pages/understanding-and-awareness/social-model.php

you start by looking at the strengths of the person with the impairment and at the physical and social barriers that obstruct them, whether at school, college, home or work.

“Impairment is the loss or limitation of physical, mental or sensory function on a long-term or permanent basis.

Disablement is the loss or limitation of opportunities to take part in the normal life of the community on an equal level with others due to physical and social barriers.” Disabled People’s International 1981

If some part, or parts, of your body or mind are limited in their functioning, this is simply an impairment. It doesn’t make you any less human.

The British Film Institute’s guide Disabling imagery? A teaching guide to disability and moving image media http://www.bfi.org.uk/education/teaching/disability/thinking/medical.html

Charity Model

portrays the disabled as in need of care and protection

Administrative model

used to assess whether people or eligible for benefits or compensation. Definitions of disability are rigid and refer to impairments as opposed to environment.

services reflect fact disabled need to be helped

Seale, J. (2006) E-Learning and Disability in Higher Education: Accessibility Research and Practice, Abingdon, Routledge; also available online at http://learn.open.ac.uk/mod/resourcepage/view.php?id=569013&direct=1

Universal model

a merge between medical and social model to include environmental factors i.e. everything a person does, all aspects of human life (interaction of impairment, disability & contextual factors) and the complete background to a person’s life & living (environmental & personal). Multidimensional.

Based on the value of inclusion.

Seale, J. (2006) E-Learning and Disability in Higher Education: Accessibility Research and Practice, Abingdon, Routledge; also available online at http://learn.open.ac.uk/mod/resourcepage/view.php?id=569013&direct=1

Moral model

the disability is the result of sin (?!)

Rehabilitation model

the disability can be ‘fixed’ by rehabilitation

Disability model

the problem is defined as a dominating attitude by professionals and others, inadequate support services when compared with society generally, as well as attitudinal, architectural, sensory, cognitive, and economic barriers, and the strong tendency for people to generalize about all persons with disabilities overlooking the large variations within the disability community.

Kaplan, D. (2000) ‘The definition of disability: perspective of the disability community’, Journal of Health Care Law & Policy, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 352–64; also available online at http://libezproxy.open.ac.uk/ login?url=http://heinonline.org/ HOL/ Page?collection=journals&handle=hein.journals/ hclwpo3&id=362

 

All I need to do now is construct some sentences…

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